A little-known secret for keeping your skin healthy. It is a natural oil that not only restores moisture and smoothness to dry and damaged skin but can also provide relief to people who suffer from chronic skin disorders such as eczema and atopic dermatitis.
Borage, (Borago Officianalis) is a wildflower commonly called the starflower. It is a relatively large plant (1.5 ft tall) with star-shaped bright blue flowers and it is found wild in almost all parts of the world. It is a well-known herb that has been recognized and used for over 1500 years. The Roman historian Pliny writes of the virtues of Borage and it is suspected that Borage leaves, steeped in wine, was the mysterious Nepenthe elixer that Homer writes of which causes absolute forgetfulness when drunk. In the middle ages, Borage leaves were commonly brewed into a medicinal tea.1
However today the borage plant is grown and harvested not for its leaves and stems but rather for the very valuable oil found in its seeds- Borage Oil. The great value of this oil is that it is the richest known source (24%) of an essential fatty acid called gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA).
A Little Biochemistry
Our body is capable of naturally producing gamma Linolenic Acid. However, in order to do so, it must have as its starting material Linoleic Acid (LA). This is an essential fatty acid that our body is unable to make and we must ingest it as part of our everyday diets. Fortunately, we get plenty of Linoleic Acid in our daily diets since it is commonly found in almost all edible vegetable oils. Once Linoleic acid is ingested it is acted upon by an enzyme called Delta-6- Desaturase (D6D) which biochemically converts LA into GLA. This is how we normally get our daily fix of GLA. Note the importance of the enzyme D6D, without it we would be deficient in GLA no matter how much linoleic acid we got in our diets. GLA is further converted via a sequence of biochemical steps into a very important compound called Prostaglandin 1 (PG1) which is a key molecule for maintaining healthy skin. PG1 exhibits a potent anti-inflammatory effect on the skin and also is very effective in regulating water loss and protecting skin from injury and damage.
The D6D enzyme is often referred to as a “lazy ” enzyme. That is to say, it can be slow in doing its job, and under some conditions may actually be impaired. People with skin disorders such as eczema, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis show increased levels of Linoleic Acid with a simultaneous decrease in gamma Linolenic Acid3. This evidence strongly suggests a reduction in the activity of the D6D enzyme. And as a consequence, the resulting decrease in the synthesis of PG1 may be responsible for the characteristic dry skin and transepidermal water loss observed in these people. It is here where the importance of Borage Oil with its rich source of gamma Linolenic Acid becomes evident. Used as a dietary supplement or even applied topically Borage Oil can circumvent a “lazy” or impaired D6D enzyme by supplying the body directly with GLA and thus allowing the production of normal levels of PG1
Borage Oil in your Diet and on your Skin.
Several recent studies indicate that Borage Oil taken orally increases PG1 levels in the skin and suppresses chronic inflammation 4,5,6,7. Evidence from animal studies indicates that skin disorders associated with fatty acid imbalances can be corrected through the dietary inclusion of Borage oil. Similar research with humans has confirmed these findings 8,9. In fact, a recent study10 has shown that dietary supplementation of Borage Oil for patients with skin disorders can result in direct improvement in the condition of their skin.
Not only is Borage Oil excellent for your skin when taken internally but there is also more than enough evidence showing that when applied topically to your skin Borage Oil has the same positive effects on clearing up various skin disorders.
A very interesting experiment measured the effects of skin creams containing Borage oil on dry or damaged skin13. Twenty healthy subjects who had either dry, but otherwise normal skin, or else had surfactant induced dry, scaly skin were tested over 14 days. Results indicated that the cream containing the Borage Oil was superior in restoring moisture and smoothness to both the dry skin as well as the surfactant damaged skin. This experiment was interpreted as strong evidence for the role that Borage Oil plays in restoring the intracellular moisture barrier of adult skin that is either chronically dry or has been environmentally damaged.